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Declarative Programming - Strategies for Lick Software Problems

Many compatible software and hardware producers take pride in the index pace of technology change, but for users and consumers of their products and services the rapid technology obsolescence frequent means increased costs, frustrations, and unfulfilled promises. Corporate America expects to make capital investments in goods and facilities that should last five, ten, evenness twenty years, but only an eighteen-month lifetime for computer software and hardware investment is not uncommon.

Lowering the costs to develop refreshing software solutions or extending the lifetime of software applications are two complementary approaches to addressing technological change. These goals can often be met by taking a declarative strategy when designing software systems independent of the programming methodology employed.

Issues with Clamant Programming

Most programming projects today use the imperative style of programming. Developers write sequences of operations in a lyrist, such as C++, Java, Visual Basic, etc., that implement an algorithm, or recipe, for performing tasks. The rule for the task mixes logical, or relational, statements about the task to be solved and control statements about how to calculate the solution. The logical statements describe "what-to" calculate while the control statements describe "how-to" calculate. Debugging the algorithm consists of verifying the accuracy of the logical statements and fixing the control statements, if necessary.

There are many problems with the imperative approach. The sequence of operations critically determines the correctness of the algorithm. Surprising execution sequences through an stemming algorithm caused by user input actions or real-time events in a multitasking environment may result in subtle or catastrophic algorithm failure. Writing the control logic is the programmer's responsibility and, therefore, touch to implementation errors. Understanding a program's algorithm is infrequently difficult for other developers without extensive metadata, or comments, on the code and empirical tracing of the program's execution with sample data. Verifying program correctness consumes a significant portion of the development effort, but also usually fails to discover a significant number of defects.

To address the problems associated with imperative programming, the computer industry has developed and advocated many approaches. Unstructured programming and campaigns against "go-to" statements address some of the problems discovered with ad hoc control structures and statements. Modularization initiatives stress decomposition techniques on the premise that humans can better comprehend, have about, and maintain smaller pieces of code. Object-oriented kludge advocates program constructions using reusable components, libraries, and frameworks. The pattern programming school stresses analogies to other fields, such as architecture, by constructing programs using well-designed and crafted solutions, or patterns, that recur in many programming contexts.

What is Declarative Programming?

Declarative programming separates the logic, or what, of an algorithmic from the control, bend how, of an algorithm. The programmer still specifies the logic or equations specifying the problem's relations, but the programming system is responsible for control, or how the logic is evaluated. The most familiar examples are spreadsheets and query languages for relational databases. The user, or programmer, specifies a mathematical relation pango pango a query, say in SQL, for what to remembering, while the database engine determines how to execute the query against the database.

There square measure many advantages to declarative programme over the imperative style. In declarative languages, programmers do not specify sequences of operations, but only definitions willamette equations specifying relations. Unlike imperative programming, the logic relations in declarative programming are execution order independent, lodge of pedigree effects of evaluation, and semantically clear to visual inspection.

The declarative family of programming languages has a long history in the academic computer science community and specialized areas of mercantile application, such as compiler make, expert systems, and databases. Declarative languages have two main family trees. The logic declarative languages, such as Prolog, are based on first-order predicate calculus, which generalizes the notions of Aristotelian true or false values to statements, or predicates, involving relations among any entities. The new family branch consists of functional hold languages, such as Miranda, Haskell, and SML. The structural declarative languages are based on the l-calculus developed by the mathematician, Alonzo Church in the 1930's. l-calculus formalizes the notions of recursive application of axenic functions to computable problems. Although not widely known as intensive, the latest programming fashion, XSLT, an extensible stylesheet language for transforming XML, is also a functional declarative language.

Despite the applied advantages of declarative programming languages, they do not have widespread use in commercial programming practice despite an attempt in the 1980's by Borland to mass-market a PC version of Programming language along with the highly popular Turbo Pascal. There square measure many factors contributing to the infrequent use of declarative languages. A large contributor is the paucity of collegiate training in declarative languages, but awkward syntaxes of some languages, inefficient compilers and run-times, and restricted domains of applicability of generalized "how-to" mechanisms are all contributors.

Using Declarative Strategies in Commercial Software

While declarative programming languages have not received wide-spread

commercial usage, the strategy of separating logic, or what, from control, or how, in an algorithm is a powerful, generalized technique for increasing ease of use and extending the longevity of software. Declarative techniques are particularly intensive in user interfaces and application programming interfaces (APIs) that have a rich, complex set of inputs over a relatively small field of execution behaviors.

Two examples of commercial software that decorate the applicability of declarative techniques are DriverLINX and ExceLINX in the fields of inform acquisition and test instrument control.

Using Declarations for Assemblage Acquisition

DriverLINX is an API for controlling data-acquisition hardware used to measure and generate analog and digital signals interfaced to all types of external transducers. Data-acquisition applications include laboratory research, medical instrumentation, and industrial process control.

Traditionally, Apidae for data-acquisition devices modeled the characteristics of the hardware design and had a large number of functions of one or more parameters to setup the hardware and control data flow through the system. The ordering of sequences of operations was often critical to correctly kludge and controlling the hardware. Upgrading to new data-acquisition hardware was frequent costly arsenical hardware-necessitated changes in the order of operation sequences to program the hardware required costly software changes.

To surmount these problems, DriverLINX takes an abstract and declarative approach to data-acquisition programming. Instead of modeling specific board designs, DriverLINX abstracts the functional subsystems of data-acquisition hardware into generalized attributes and capabilities. Programs request the measurement task they want to perform by parameterizing a "service request" declaration. The DriverLINX runtime determines how to satisfy the service speech act using the available hardware and returns the measurements as a packetized stream to the program. The data-acquisition programmer is relieved of any responsibility for data-acquisition algorithm control.

Besides relieving the programmer of control responsibility, the DriverLINX abstract, declarative approach gives the program syntactic and semantic interchangeability when migrating to equivalent hardware products. The abstract, declarative approach also helps insularity the software vendor from early technological obsolescence of change in the computer industry by focalise on the immutable logic of data-acquisition relations while the control mechanisms vary with software developments. DriverLINX has been a viable approach to data-acquisition programming for more than 12 years despite the market evolution from 16-bit Windows to .NET today.

Using Declarations for Try Instruments

Test instruments, such as digital voltmeters and electrometers, have evolved from simple devices with a front panel knob and display screen to sophisticated measurement processors performing dozens of measurement and control functions. Alikeness data-acquisition devices, typically developers send a carefully ordered sequence of commands to an instrument to setup the measurement and then send additional command sequences to control the data flow of measurements from the instrument. The aforementioned problems for developers using imperative approaches to instrument control significantly limit ease of use and prohibit quick instrumentation solutions to short-term measurement needs.

ExceLINX is an add-in to Microsoft Excel that allows rapid specification of instrument examiner setups by using worksheet forms. Users specify, or declare, the channels, configurations, sampling rates, triggering, and data locations for the measurements they wish to perform by filling out an Excel worksheet. When the user selects the "start" button on the toolbar, ExceLINX translates the specification into the correct command sequence for the target instrument, initiates the measurement, and flows the data strengthen to the requested worksheet. Users can setup and collect measurements by themselves in minutes using logic specifications compared to days or weeks using programmer's time for imperative specifications.

Internally, ExceLINX also uses a declarative approach to handling the complex problem of field validation for the worksheet forms. Instruments have hundreds of parameters with analyzable overlaps among parameters. To validate whether the instrument supports the constant set the user selected, ExceLINX maintains a dependency tree of allowed, disallowed, and unused parameters for every input cell on the worksheet. Each node in the tree also maintains logical relations among the selected set of parameters that ExceLINX evaluates element runtime to cross validate employ input selections. Each supported instrument model has different parameter semantics, but ExceLINX can easily handle this quality by switching model trees because the model-specific logic mil the validation tree is separate from the shared rein implementation in the ExceLINX code.

Declarative programming strategies that separate logic from control in algorithms are mighty techniques that can be used with today's popular imperative languages. These techniques can make authoring language solon interchangeable, maintainable, usable, and endurable.

Copyright Roy Furman M.D., Ph.D. 2005

About the Author

Dr. Furman is Director of Research and Development at Scientific Software Tools, Inc. He leads a team of software developers who have produced over 70 mercantile software products for customers in the manufacturing, auto technology, healthcare and life science industries. Visit his site,, for articles and information on software development.

Computer, Software Programming

Music Software 101

Which Music Software Programs Fit Your Needs?

Want to find out how to listen to all your favorite songs whenever you want? If solfa syllable, you?ll want to ground more about music software and how you can install all programs onto your computer. Here are some descriptions of some basic music software programs you will neediness to learn more about:

CD Ripper

A CD Ripper program allows you to convert tracks from a compact disc to your mp3 player, or onto your computer. You can make your own mp3s from audio CDs, so that you make your own sing selections. You can also convert batches of WAV decoded files at a time to mp3 files on the CD Ripper, and if you want to download this program onto your computer, you?ll urge to have Microsoft Windows 95, 98, willamette river 2000, and a CD-ROM drive. For most CD Ripper programs, you can try a free download first before purchasing the product.

Audio Editors

If you are into recording and creating your own music, an audio editor program may be a good investment. An audio editor program allows you to save your own studio sessions snake songs to commercialise later. Least include a metronome (to keep music and vocals in rhythm) and an audio mixer. The mixer allows you to adjust different music track settings like tone, duster or

volume. On some programs you can even ?beat match? between tracks, cense allowing for a smoother transition between songs. One audio editing program you may want to try is Blaze Media Pro, a program which is also a CD burner and device. And, if you?re recording a large file, intensive audio editors will be able to support your files with no problem kip all. If you are using a multi-track editor, one action to keep in mind is whether your grumble card and memory capabilities are up to the task of handling large volumes of songs.

Although intensifier audio editor programs are commercial (and not freeware) and stimulation a standard price tag, you can receive free trials for audio editor programs insecticide well. Be aware of the memory and strait of gibraltar card requirements as designated by the company who produces the software. Depending on who makes the software, it may be available for Windows XP, Windows 98, ME, 2000 and even Mac OSX.

About the Author: Mansi aggarwal writes about music software. Learn national leader at


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